Which of the Babylonian Code of Law Was the First Rise of Kingdoms

At the beginning of [Babylonian history] stands the powerful figure of Hammurabi, conqueror and legislator through a reign of forty-three years. Primitive seals and inscriptions convey it to us in part – a young man full of fire and genius, a whirlwind in battle, crushing all the rebels, cutting his enemies to pieces, walking on inaccessible mountains and never losing an engagement. Under his leadership, the small warlike states of the lower valley were forced into unity and peace and disciplined by a historic code of order and security. (219) This interpretation avoids the problem of inconsistency between the Code and the actual court decisions. Second, the codex has striking similarities with other works of Mesopotamian science. Important similarities are the list format and the order of the elements,[110] which Ann Guinan describes as a complex «serial logic». [111] Marc Van De Mieroop explains that, like other works of Mesopotamian science such as omen lists, lists of kings, and lists of gods, entries in the Hammurabi Codex are organized according to two principles. These are «opposition» – where one variable in one input is modified to make another – and «pointillism» – where new conditions are added to an entry, or paradigmatic series that are plotted to produce a sequence. [112] Van De Mieroop cites the following examples: Scheil raves about the importance and perceived fairness of the stele and calls it «a moral and political masterpiece.» [19] C.

H. W. The Elamites, who had been so completely defeated by Hammurabi decades earlier, invaded and carried the stele of the Code of Law of Hammurabi, discovered in the Elamite city of Susa in 1901 AD. Although the Codex of Hammurabi was the first collection of Mesopotamian law to be discovered, it was not the first to be written; Several earlier collections have been preserved. These collections were written in Sumerian and Akkadian. They also claim to have been written by leaders. There were almost certainly more such collections, as statements by other rulers suggest that the custom was widespread. [8] The similarities between these statutes make it tempting to assume a coherent underlying legal system. [8] However, as with the Codex Hammurabi, it is difficult to interpret the purpose and underlying legal systems of these earlier collections, leading many scholars to question whether this should be attempted. [9] Among the preserved collections are: And the house he built falls and kills its owner, then this builder must be killed.

The Code of Law of Hammurabi thus set the standard for future codes in the strict treatment of evidence of the crime and the establishment of a specific punishment for that crime. However, what decided guilt or innocence was the much older method of the ordeal, in which an accused was condemned to perform a specific task (usually being thrown into a river or having to swim across a river) and, if successful, he was innocent and, if not, he was guilty. The Code of Hammurabi states: Despite the uncertainty surrounding these issues, Hammurabi is considered an important figure in legal history outside of Assyriology and the document is considered a true legal code. The U.S. Capitol has a relief portrait of Hammurabi alongside those of other lawmakers, and there are replicas of the stele in many institutions, including the United Nations headquarters in New York and the Pergamon Museum in Berlin. Begin this activity by showing students the large image of the Hammurabi Stele, available on the web resource reviewed by EDSITEment, The Oriental Institute: The University of Chicago.



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